Hepatitis A – Symptoms, causes and treatment

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Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus. The virus causes inflammation that affects your liver’s ability to function. You’re most likely to contract it from contaminated food or water or from close contact with someone who’s already infected. Most people who are infected mildly do not require treatment and recover completely with no permanent liver damage.There are five hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E. There are also other viruses that can cause liver inflammation, like Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus, but these viruses are not called hepatitis viruses.


The symptoms typically don’t appear until you’ve had the virus for a few weeks.

• Fatigue

• Nausea and vomiting

• Abdominal pain or discomfort, especially in the area of your liver on your right side beneath your lower ribs

• Loss of appetite

• Low-grade fever

• Dark urine

• Muscle pain

• Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)


It is caused by infection with the virus. The virus is usually spread when a person ingests tiny amounts of contaminated fecal matter. It infects the liver cells and causes inflammation. The inflammation can damage liver function and cause other signs and symptoms of hepatitis A.

It can be transmitted in number of ways such as:

• When someone with the virus manipulates the food you eat without first carefully washing his or her hands after using the toilet.

• Drinking contaminated water

• If you eat raw shellfish from polluted water

• If a person is in close contact with a person who is infected — even if that person has no signs or symptoms

• If person has sex with someone who has the virus

Risk factor:

• Work or travel in regions with high rates of hepatitis A

• A person who has sexual contact with other men

• Are HIV positive

• Use noninjected or injected illicit drugs

• Live with another person who has it

• Receive clotting-factor concentrates for medical condition or hemophilia


No specific treatment exists for it. Your body will clear the virus on its own. In most cases of it, the liver heals completely in a month or two with no lasting damage.

• Expect to have less energy. Many people with this infection feel tired and have less energy to carry out their daily tasks. Rest when you feel tired or when you need to. You may feel sick and tired for a few months.

• Ways to cope with nausea. Nausea can make it hard to eat. Find ways to make food more attractive. Rather than three large meals eat small snacks throughout the day.…

6 Steps To Pub Golfing – An Exciting Way To Play Golf!

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Pub golf – an exciting, funny and potentially brutal game of drinking. This game is also known as bar golf and very popular among pub crawls. Pub golf is no way related to the conventional golf game where there is no long fairway with the glint of green, smacking a small white dimpled ball with a lump of metal rod and sending it to the air to make it fly for a long way and run after it. Pub golf surely made of keeping in mind the conventional golf game but it’s a typical drinking game which can be enjoyed by a group of friends and can have lots of fun.

Pub golf is a very simple game and can be played at anytime such as a birthday party, bachelor’s party or on any other occasion. Specially playing this game in the summer afternoons are very popular. Although this game is to make a great fun time with friends but it also has some basic rules based on which you can make a pub golf game that suits your tastes.

Basic idea of pub golf game – The whole idea of playing pub golf game is to travel around 18 different pubs or bars where each pubs or bar is considered as a ‘golf hole’. The pubs to be visited need to decide upon at least a day before the game will be played and need to be mapped out into a proper route. Among the 18 pubs one pub has to be the club house. Each pub (hole) has a per assigned to it and the value assigned to each pub can range from one to five.

Here are the important rules mentioned below:

1. A proper schedule needs to make before starting the game in order to organize and finish the game in time. Maximum time for each hole should not be more than 30 minutes.

2. Par value correspond the type of drinks and the number of mouthfuls to finish your drink. Here is an example below:
* Par 1 – shooter
* Par 2 – A glass of wine (red or white)
* Par 3 – A bottle of beer (any)
* Par 4 – A pint of beer (any)
* Par 5 – A pint of cold apple.
A good range of drinks should be added including some non-alcoholic drinks like water, orange juice, lime and lemonade, etc. However which drinks to be used should be decided before the game starts.

3. Scoring is done on the basis of sips or gulps taken to finish a drink which is designated as par. The aim is to make the lowest final score to win the game.

4. Drink substitution is allowed with a penalty which is double measure of shot. The number of shots taken for the penalty drink must be added to the score for the hole.

5. A score card should be maintained properly with the additional record of drink substitution, jokers and any …